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Through time, an organism gains the ability to actively control purpose and then transform it into inventiveness. With this transformation, the psyche is born. It is practically incomprehensible to direct experimental research and mathematical description. Hence, to transform rough knowledge into highly processed science, it seems reasonable to follow in the footsteps of evolution and to apply the systemic way of description of biological phenomena and processes. One might deduce that evolution has already made all the essential errors, so this path of scientific thinking is relatively free from intellectual minds. The only observable manifestation of any psychical activity of the human mind is movement, which is the subject of interest of the scientific discipline termed motor control. So, without psychology, motor control is mindless; yet, without motor control, psychology is also blind. Nevertheless, it seems that motor control may make a window, enabling a view with intellectual and not experimental methodology into the human mind. Even the physical part of reality is too complex to be described in full. To understand this intricate idea somehow, it is necessary to create the simplified representations of reality, or theories. As a result, science is not able to determine how reality is; it may only produce more or less useful descriptions of reality. This book makes an attempt at the creation of such a system-theoretical description of issues concerning the motor behavior of living beings, including humans. It suggests the very nature of essential processes underlying this essential biological process.
ThisvolumerepresentstheproceedingsofaNATOAdvancedResearchWorkShop(ARW) on the topic of "Sensorimotor Impairment in the Elderly" held at the Residenz Hotel, Bad Windsheim, Germany, September 11-13, 1992. The Residenz Hotel provided a pleasarit setting for the ARW in a historic environment. ' The motivation of this ARW was to provide some coherence to the widely scattered literature on motorimpairmentsin the elderly by bringing together, for atwo day workshop, many of the prominent individuals who are doing much of the contemporary research on sensorimotor aging. Our hope was to advance knowledge by having tutorial lectures and provocative discussions. As directors, we wanted the ARW to appraise the main theoretical ideas that currently characterize sensorimotor research on older adults. Our hope is that this volume will provide a review of some of the diverse literature on sensorimotor integration problems in the elderly. What was abundantly clear [TOm the presentations and discussions was how much more remains to be discovered about how motor and sensory systems change with age. The stimulus provided by this volume should be an invaluable reference in the years to come. Thevolume isorganized around five topicthemes: SensorimotorIntegration, AgeChanges in Muscle, Posture and Locomotion, Neurological Diseases, and Effects ofTraining. While they are not comprehensive, the topic themes reflect the structure of the ARW. The chapters within each topic discuss many ofthe currently debated questions on sensorimotormechanisms and how they are altered by age.
The purpose of this book is to introduce algebraic topology using the novel approach of homotopy theory, an approach with clear applications in algebraic geometry as understood by Lawson and Voevodsky. This method allows the authors to cover the material more efficiently than the more common method using homological algebra. The basic concepts of homotopy theory, such as fibrations and cofibrations, are used to construct singular homology and cohomology, as well as K-theory. Throughout the text many other fundamental concepts are introduced, including the construction of the characteristic classes of vector bundles. Although functors appear constantly throughout the text, no knowledge about category theory is expected from the reader. This book is intended for advanced undergraduates and graduate students with a basic knowledge of point set topology as well as group theory and can be used in a two semester course. Marcelo Aguilar and Carlos Prieto are Professors at the Instituto de Matemticas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, and Samuel Gitler is a member of El Colegio Nacional and professor at the Centro de Investigacion y Estudios Avanzados del IPN.
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